Sunday, July 2, 2017

Tower of human skulls in Mexico casts new light on Aztecs


A tower of human skulls unearthed beneath the heart of Mexico City has raised new questions about the culture of sacrifice in the Aztec Empire after crania of women and children surfaced among the hundreds embedded in the forbidding structure.

Archaeologists have found more than 650 skulls caked in lime and thousands of fragments in the cylindrical edifice near the site of the Templo Mayor, one of the main temples in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, which later became Mexico City.


The tower is believed to form part of the Huey Tzompantli, a massive array of skulls that struck fear into the Spanish conquistadores when they captured the city under Hernan Cortes, and mentioned the structure in contemporary accounts.

Historians relate how the severed heads of captured warriors adorned tzompantli, or skull racks, found in a number of Mesoamerican cultures before the Spanish conquest.

But the archaeological dig in the bowels of old Mexico City that began in 2015 suggests that picture was not complete.

"We were expecting just men, obviously young men, as warriors would be, and the thing about the women and children is that you'd think they wouldn't be going to war," said Rodrigo Bolanos, a biological anthropologist investigating the find.

"Something is happening that we have no record of, and this is really new, a first in the Huey Tzompantli," he added.


Raul Barrera, one of the archaeologists working at the site alongside the huge Metropolitan Cathedral built over the Templo Mayor, said the skulls would have been set in the tower after they had stood on public display on the tzompantli.


Roughly six meters in diameter, the tower stood on the corner of the chapel of Huitzilopochtli, Aztec god of the sun, war and human sacrifice. Its base has yet to be unearthed.

There was no doubt that the tower was one of the skull edifices mentioned by Andres de Tapia, a Spanish soldier who accompanied Cortes in the 1521 conquest of Mexico, Barrera said.

In his account of the campaign, de Tapia said he counted tens of thousands of skulls at what became known as the Huey Tzompantli. Barrera said 676 skulls had so far been found, and that the number would rise as excavations went on.

The Aztecs and other Mesoamerican peoples performed ritualistic human sacrifices as offerings to the sun.

Sourse: reuters

Saturday, July 1, 2017

The Swimming Dragon: Qigong exercise for beauty, health, and high energy


The Swimming Dragon is an ancient Chinese Qigong exercise that comes to us through the Taoist tradition. If practiced diligently and regularly, it has the power to improve our health, enhance our physical appearance, and improve our general well-being.

The Swimming Dragon is named for the serpentine movement of the body while practicing which resembles a Chinese Dragon swimming. In traditional Daoism, this exercise is also known as The Tiger’s Waist Exercise, Willow Waist, or Triple Bracelets Encircling the Moon.

The Swimming Dragon is a self-contained exercise that is generally practiced by repeating a short cycle of movements in sessions lasting from five to twenty minutes. Each cycle of exercise takes about one minute. It is easy to learn and perform and brings pleasant and beneficial results as soon as one begins to practice it.

During the exercise, the body smoothly and evenly rises and lowers and, at the same time, swings to the left and right. The movements are simple and the swinging movements fully stretch out the body. The spine is twisted in an "S" shape and extended to its maximum length. It requires the entire body, especially the waist and abdominal area, perform large scale swinging movements. In moving the body from side to side with legs together while shifting the pelvis stimulates the groin area. This in turn stimulates the endocrine system.

Benefits

The Swimming Dragon is actually a comprehensive system of care for the internal organs, spine and meridian systems, In particular, the movements have beneficial influences on the intestines, stomach, lungs and kidneys and encourage relaxation.

Practicing this Qi Gong exercise is very effective for stimulating the free flow of Energy and Blood throughout the body while breaking up any stagnation that might be present. This Qi Gong exercise also helps maintain the strength and flexibility of all the joints including the spine. In addition practicing this exercise also helps to strengthen all the internal organs and benefits the Kidney energy.

  • reduces weight without dieting 
  • waist is made more slender and flexible
  • stimulates metabolism
  • increases and balances energy
  • creates beautiful skin
  • improves skin tone 
  • helps eliminate wrinkles
  • reduces tension by relaxing the body and calming the mind
  • improves muscle tone and enhances flexibility in joints
  • adjusts and stretches the spine
  • naturally improves posture
  • massages deep muscles all the way to the bone
  • frees and deepens breathing
  • benefits all internal organs
  • sends energy to vital organs by stimulating meridians

Above all these specific benefits, the main benefit of the Swimming Dragon is the production and circulation of Chi, leading to longer life and increased vitality.

This Qi Gong is very simple to learn. 








Friday, June 30, 2017

The Laws of Death (Hermes Trismegistus)


1. As it is below, so it is above; as on the earth, so in the sky.

2. There are two states of being: one is mortal; the other Immortal.

3. That which is mortal is dissolvable, and dissolvable bodies pass away like a mist in the morning.

4. An Immortal body is in essence which is eternal and incorruptible.

5. But the twain, the mortal and the Immortal cannot exist together forever, but each returneth to the place from whence it came.

6. The mortal body is sensible, but the Immortal is reasonable.

7. The former contains nothing that is perfect, the latter nothing that is imperfect; for the one is the essence of the Spirit, the other the essence of matter, and man, the microcosm, holds the balance of the twain.

8. And there is a fierce warfare for the Victory, between the upper and lower, as they both desire to obtain the body as their prize; for the state of man is envied by the lower and glorified as a noble state by the higher.

9. Now as the man inclines towards the lower nature which is mortal, he thereby aids the lower imperfect powers to oppose the higher which is Immortal, and must suffer the pains of slavery for his disobedience to the workman his maker. But if he inclines to the higher, then he is truly wise and blest.

10. Should man, after being attracted by the vanities of the world and then after obtaining a knowledge of the things that really are, return to the vanities of the world, he will be punished with torments and fire in the darkest states a disembodied Souls.

11. Should a man, after knowing the things that are, become rebellious of restraint to that part which is Immortal, and return to the vanities of the world, the higher essence will straightway depart from him, and he will become the slave of the lower essence which will seize upon him and drive him to all sorts of wicked arts and evil ways.

12. When a man has thus impiously disobeyed nature and turned his face away from that which is Immortal, behold he is then disinherited from his birthright, and is no longer counted among the children of Nature because he has become an evil, perverse thing, possessing only those things which are mortal, and he is punished with death.

13. And so death is melted out to all those who rebel against Nature impiously, because they know the things that are. But to those foolish souls who are ignorant, and who have not knowingly rejected Nature, behold, they are purified after much suffering and are sent to the world again."

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

Drugs for Enlightenment?


Drugs are a very interesting topic when looked at from a metaphysical point of view. While they impact on the nervous system in a profound way, they also affect subtle bodies and states of consciousness immensely.

Although the states of consciousness achieved through drug use may feel similar to these higher dimensional states they are not the same because the ego is still playing a large part in the user’s orientation. It is possible to have real spiritual awakenings as a result of drugs but sometimes these actually lead to a further solidification of the ego. As the states are achieved through drugs and not by clearing and raising the vibration of the subtle bodies.

These methods of stimulation initially give the user ten or twenty times the energy, but they draw out all the energy from wherever it is available, namely the organs, glands and brain. Afterwards the user is left feeling flat and listless with more stimulants being needed to return to the same high.

When we consume something that gets us high, our soul energy literally rises. Our aura begins to quickly expand, trying to harness the escaping energy.

Our aura is a protection field. To willingly allow any substance in our bodies that could create an unwanted opening is not what you want to happen.

Holes or tears invite negative energies to sneak in and invade. This weakens us and could have repercussions one should not choose. Just because you cannot see the energy field does not mean that it does not exist and that something is not happening.

The dangers of drug use are:
  • damage to the astral body, 
  • damage to the energetic channels,
  • loss of large amounts of jing, 
  • disorganization and damage to the chitta.

These dangers run along side the physical damage that can be caused to the brain, nervous system, internal organs and glands.

Some people use drugs as a path to enlightenment (in the sense of higher awareness, insights on universal wisdom, creativity, compassion and joy) or in rituals as a form of healing (or rather as a way to gain an understanding that potentially leads to healing).

No matter whether natural or synthetic drugs are taken, an artificially induced state of bliss, oneness and awareness can be wonderful and inspiring, yes. BUT it is also clear that an artificially triggered higher state of consciousness and vibration cannot be sustained without that substance. Inevitably there will be a return into the valley after those peak experience. 

Drugs give just momentary lifts into happiness and truth realization. Whoever takes drugs will land back in and pick up from exactly the emotional, mental, vibrational state from where s/he started off from. Bliss might have been experienced with the help of some drug, but fact is that the actual body has not been prepared adequately to have the capacity to hold such high frequency permanently and naturally by itself (nervous system, pituatary and pineal gland connection etc).

What remains? What do you do with a lighthouse moment of bliss and delight? I’d say, a) take the insights you’ve gained and integrate them consciously in your behaviour and life, and B) take it as orientation point and motivation to clear and purify your system through regular spiritual practice and healing in order to be able to reach these states of higher consciousness naturally and “alone”, independent of any external helpers.

Drugs can cause devastation in the body, and of course there is also the risk of addiction, and auric attachments. Don’t just go for higher awareness, go for pristine awareness.

If you think that becoming dependent on any substance while believing that you’re only better at achieving an elevated state of consciousness with this substance then you’re missing the point of ascension.

There are times when one must take prescribed medications. It is best to be conscious of the possible effects. Take precautionary measures to maintain balance, positivity and protect your vulnerable energy field.

Thursday, May 4, 2017

Taoist sexual practices and sexual vampirism in ancient China


Some Taoist sects during the Han dynasty performed sexual intercourse as a spiritual practice, called "Héqì" ("Joining Energy"). The first sexual texts that survive today are those found at the Mawangdui. While Taoism had not yet fully evolved as a philosophy at this time, these texts shared some remarkable similarities with later Tang dynasty texts, such as the Ishinpō. 

The sexual arts arguably reached their climax between the end of the Han dynasty and the end of the Tang dynasty. After 1000 CE, Confucian restraining attitudes towards sexuality became stronger, so that by the beginning of the Qing dynasty in 1644, sex was a taboo topic in public life. These Confucians alleged that the separation of genders in most social activities existed 2,000 years ago, and suppressed the sexual arts. Because of the taboo surrounding sex, there was much censoring done during the Qing in literature, and the sexual arts disappeared in public life. As a result, some of the texts survived only in Japan, and most scholars had no idea that such a different concept of sex existed in early China.

The basis of all Taoist thinking is that qi is part of everything in existence. Qi is related to another energetic substance contained in the human body known as jing, and once all this has been expended the body dies. Jing can be lost in many ways, but most notably through the loss of body fluids. Taoists may use practices to stimulate/increase and conserve their bodily fluids to great extents. The fluid believed to contain the most Jing is semen. Therefore, Taoists believe in decreasing the frequency of, or totally avoiding, ejaculation in order to conserve life essence.

Male control of ejaculation

Statue of an Immortal
Many Taoist practitioners link the loss of ejaculatory fluids to the loss of vital life force: where excessive fluid loss results in premature aging, disease, and general fatigue. While some Taoists contend that one should never ejaculate, others provide a specific formula to determine the maximum amount of regular ejaculations in order to maintain health.

The general idea is to limit the loss of fluids as much as possible to the level of your desired practice. As these sexual practices were passed down over the centuries, some practitioners have given less importance to the limiting of ejaculation. Nevertheless, the "retention of the semen" is one of the foundational tenets of Taoist sexual practice.

There are different methods to control ejaculation prescribed by the Taoists. While, if done incorrectly can cause a retrograde ejaculation, the Taoists believed that the jing traveled up into the head and "nourished the brain."

Proponents of the bedchamber techniques theorized that if one could suck up the genital fluids of one's partner during sexual intercourse without releasing any fluids of one's own, one would emerge from the encounter with an increased store of qi — at the direct expense, of course, of the partner, who would eventually waste away and die if the technique were performed on her repeatedly.

Some Ming dynasty Taoist sects believed that one way for men to achieve longevity or 'towards immortality' is by having intercourse with virgins just under 14 years of age and women older than 18 should be avoided.

One danger for some weak men is that they might activate an endless outpouring of jing that never seems to stop, which can actually kill them, so in the old days the women would wear a needle in their hair and then take it out and punch the man’s buttocks with it — like acupuncture –to stop the leakage of jing to prevent him from fainting. They actually stabbed the man in the buttocks if this deadly scenario happened.

Women

In the early days of Taoism, men were running the show and they were writing the rules on sexual practices. As you might guess, the practices they came up with, largely favored male advancement and illumination. The female was getting screwed, literally.

Queen Mother of the West
Women were often given a position of inferiority in sexual practice. Many of the texts discuss sex from a male point of view, and avoid discussing how sex could benefit women.

While the man had to please the woman sexually, she was still just an object. At numerous points during the Ishinpō, the woman is referred to as the "enemy"; this was because the woman could cause him to spill semen and lose vitality. In later sexual texts from the Ming, women had lost all semblance of being human and were referred to as the "other," "crucible", or "stove" from which to cultivate vitality. The importance of pleasing the woman was also diminished in later texts. The practice was known as Caibu, as a man enters many women without ejaculation.

Women were also considered to be a means for men to extend men's lives. Many of the ancient texts were dedicated explanation of how a man could use sex to extend his own life. But, his life was extended only through the absorption of the woman's vital energies (jing and qi). Some Taoists called the act of sex “The battle of stealing and strengthening.”

So a group of Taoist women came up with their own practices, which favored the female or at least offered equal favor for their own advancement and illumination.

These women conducted their work in secrecy and were rumored to be illuminated master of sexuality, eternal youth and healing. A woman of this lineage was known as a White Tigress.

The unique aspect of the White Tigress is their claim that women have their own unique process for acquiring the physical and spiritual goals of Taoism, namely restoring youthfulness and ultimately achieving immortality through a disciplined use of sexuality. Tigresses viewed their sexuality as a spiritual gift, and they knew how to use it well to stay healthy and young.

The female practitioner of the White Tigress Teachings practices oral sexual union with as many men as she desires. During these sexual unions she is absorbing the jing energy from the male's penis and then focusing it into her body to revitalize herself. When a male partner or Green Dragon ejaculates usually on her face or body the semen is looked upon as a badge of honor. She will rub it into her body since it is one of the most powerful skin rejuvenation creams known to ancient man. This is where the concept of the White Tigress and the stripes come from and why Geisha girls had white faces in Japan.

"A Green Dragon serves no other purpose than to be a provider of semen and sexual energy, and he does so in most cases unknowingly. A Green Dragon is led to believe that he is being seduced by the White Tigress purely for sexual pleasure... After a White Tigress had sexual interplay with a Green Dragon and she depleted him of all his sexual essences and energy, he would be symbolically considered a "Fallen Dragon".  -Sexual Teachings of the Jade Dragon

The process was totally in favor of the woman. The man got nothing really other than gratification. With sexual intercourse the female creates a material child. With oral sex, her past childlike affinities are re-created.

Master Ch’ung Ho said: “It’s not only male sexual energy that can be cultivated, the female can cultivate hers as well. Western Royal Mother is a female who obtained immortality by replenishing her yin forces with the yang. Every time she engaged in sex with a man, he fell ill, but her own face would be so smooth and glowing that she had no use for facial powders or rouge."

In China, where the preservation of the male lineage has dominated religious and political laws for centuries, little importance was given to women maintaining their youth or health. The truth is White Tigresses were imprisoned in China for their practices and those that survived went underground for many reasons.


Lao Tzu himself states, “The mysterious female is inexhaustible.” How the Yellow Emperor achieved immortality and how Western Royal Mother achieved immortality cannot be compared. Each has its own path, each seeks the other's essence to become complete.

How does Qi transfer from one partner to the other, during sex? 

First, its easy to tranfer qi from one person to another. If you look at systems like Reiki, energy easily passes from one person to another - with or without touching - no sex involved.

The same is true during sex - energy can easily pass from person to person. But here we are not speaking about simple energy, its about Jing. Jing is a special form of qi, and for the vast majority of people you have a finite amount of jing - the amount you are born with.

No one can be obligated to give energy to another. Unfortunately, there is a rich tradition of sexual ‘vampirism’ associated with the sexual practices. And there was abundant misogyny in Ancient China.

Bai Mudan is a character from Chinese mythology. It is said that one day, the immortal Lü Dongbin took a walk in Luoyang spotted Bai Mudan, and was heavily attracted by her beauty. Lü Dongbin slept with her many times. However, she became very weak since Lu practiced "cai yin bu yang" on her. Meaning he absorbed her yin essence, without losing his own yang essence. Mudan was taught by other immortals how to make him ejaculate and to absorbe his Yang essence. Later she cultivated herself and became immortal as well.

I’d like to point out that there are many many Taoist lineages in which sexual contact is not required or is strictly forbidden - a sexual partner or their energy is not needed to ‘become one with the Tao.’ There are many paths to the Tao, only a few involve sex.

You can exchange energy voluntarily 

This does not require male ejaculation. The male can ‘release’ his jing without ejaculating.

During sexual intercourse, at an agreed moment, the female ‘pours herself’ into the male as the male ‘inhales and pulls his energy (and hers) inward and upward along his du mai to the bai hui’. Then the male exhales, and pours all of that energy (his and hers) down his ren mai into the female as the female inhales and pulls her energy (and his) up her du mai to her bai hui. When she exhales, she let the energy run back down her ren mai, and they run the energy back and forth between them - up his du mai, down his ren mai, up her du mai down her ren mai - with the energy crossing between bodies at the genitals - in a pattern called ‘figure eights’ - until they have equalized and balanced the energy between them. This is called ‘dual cultivation.’

The same can be done between two skilled practitioners without any physical contact.

You can absorb sexual energy from nature

Man and woman are not the only sources of yin and yang but small reservoirs of these energies which stream through creation.

Heaven is male and earth is female. Thus the man who needs yin energy but prefers not to receive it from its human container will absorb it from the earth; and woman will draw in the male potency from its source, the heavens.

For the man to draw in the yin energy, he lies belly down, embracing the earth. One leg is straight and one bent at the knee. He will pull in the energy from the earth. He must try to have no sexual thoughts. The genitals should not touch the ground, but hang a little above it. Relax and gather your concentration by breathing deeply in and out through the nose. Think the power from the earth slowly into the penis. This basic practice applies to man: think the power up through your breathing.
As you inhale, draw the power up as if you were absorbing up fluid in a Straw: the fluid is the power and the straw is the penis. From the penis draw it past the hui yin, chang-chiang, and up the back to the head. Store the yin power in the head. In due course it will overflow the crown and move down the front of the body and return to the hui yin. When this point is reached, you may bring it up the front of the body to the navel and work the centers navel, solar plexus and heart, respectively, in the manner described in the Yin-Yang Exchange. Put away all obsessive erotic thoughts or it will cause the power to drain out.


How to absorb sexual energy from the sun

This method of absorbing the solar power into the penis is regarded as top secret and rarely revealed.
Practice: Morning sun from 7 to 11 is much preferred or 3 to 6 in the afternoon. If the sun is not too strong we can gradually absorb its power into the glans (head) of the penis much easier.

To expose to the sun, hold stem of the penis with one hand and use it to rub the glans until penis is erect. Put it down facing towards the sun and imagine the power coming into the glans, absorbing it, so that it fills the organ with warm power. It will fill the entire organ with energy if your thought is properly concentrated. When your penis softens, do the whole procedure again. Do this exercise three to four times.



Also read:

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Jing –Your original life force, and how to nourish it


Jīng 精 is the Chinese word for "essence". Along with qì and shén, it is considered one of the Three Treasures Sanbao of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

According to tradition, Jing is stored in the kidneys and is the most dense physical matter within the body (as opposed to shén which is the most volatile). It is said to be the material basis for the physical body and is yin in nature, which means it nourishes, fuels, and cools the body. As such it is an important concept in the internal martial arts. Jing is also believed by some to be the carrier of our heritage (similar to DNA). Production of semen, in the man, and menstrual blood (or pregnancy), in the woman, are believed to place the biggest strains on jing. Because of this, some even equate jing with semen, but this is inaccurate; the jing circulates through the eight extraordinary vessels and creates marrow and semen, among other functions.

Jing should not be confused with the related concept of jin (勁; power).

The characteristics which constitute signs of good Jing (e.g. facial structure, teeth, hair, strength of adrenals or kidneys) share the embryological origin of neural crest cells. These cells undergo immense and challenging cellular migrations requiring great organisation. As such, Jing may simply represent the strength of embryological self-organisation in the organism. This will be manifestated most strongly in those cells which require most organisation; that is, the neural crest cells.

One is said to be born with a fixed amount of jing (pre-natal jing, also sometimes called yuan qi) and also can acquire jing from food and various forms of stimulation (exercise, study, meditation.)

 The strength of your Jing is based on the age and health of your parents when you were conceived.

Theoretically, jing is consumed continuously in life; by everyday stress, illness, fear, trauma, overwork, substance abuse, sexual intemperance, childbirth, poor diet, excessive fasting, etc

Pre-natal jing is very difficult to be renewed, and it is said it is completely consumed upon dying.

Jing is therefore considered quite important for longevity in Traditional Chinese Medicine; many disciplines related to qìgōng are devoted to the replenishment of "lost" jing by restoration of the post-natal jing. In particular, the internal martial arts (esp. T'ai chi ch'uan) and the Circle Walking of Baguazhang may be used to preserve pre-natal jing and build post-natal jing, if performed correctly. 

Certain herbs are said to contain jing. These include but are not limited to he shou wu, rehmannia, goji berries, eucommia, chaga, deer antler, tongkat ali, dendrobium, schizandra, and many more. Ginseng, particularly Korean and Chinese, is said to bolster the jīng. Consumed for thousands of years as a superior herb, listed as the top major tonic in the herbal classic the Shennong Ben Cao Jing, it is one of the most widely researched of the Chinese tonics. Often referred to as the "king of herbs", it is well-known around the world for its energizing and immune modulating properties.

In the Ayurvedic system, the equivalent of Jing is called Ojas and you’ll find many of their top herbs like ashwaganda and shilajit help with it.

Jing herbs are commonly divided into two categories, yin and yang.

10 foods that nourish jing:


Eggs – Think about jing’s relation to reproduction and it becomes obvious the eggs can be a great food for this purpose. For the most nourishing you’re going to want to highest quality eggs. Factory farmed chickens will not do. Instead find eggs from birds that eat their natural diets. Get eggs from pastured birds or duck eggs and you’ll see a richer orange and much thicker yolk. Sometimes the shells are even tough to break.


Fish Eggs or Roe – But birds aren’t the only egg laying animal. Fish roe are another option. These eggs were highly prized by many indigenous people, and especially fed to young children and pregnant women (sometimes even pre-conception). In fact in the Andes, people would travel sometimes hundreds of miles to collect these eggs to bring them back for eating. Hopefully, you won’t have to travel that far. Instead, the next time you eat sushi make sure to get an order with tobiko or roe.


Nuts and Seeds – These are the reproductive parts of plants. All of them will work to some degree. One of the best is black sesame seeds. In fact, this is regarded as a great jing tonic in Chinese medicine. (One hint is that the color black, and even dark colors, are often associated with jing. Antioxidants contribute to health and aging slowly so they may be associated with jing.)


Algae and Seaweeds – The large amounts of minerals and dark colors contribute to the jing essence of these foods.


Pollens – Once again the reproductive agents in plants. The pollen is likened to the mammalian sperm and thus is highly rich in nutrients. Bee pollen is one option. And due to the strong hormonal component pine pollen is even better.


Royal Jelly – This substance is fed to the queen bee and is responsible for her becoming the queen. The workers are genetically identical to her, but do not get this food. It is what the royal jelly activates (epigenetics) that causes her to become queen.


Beans – Certain beans like kidney, black and azuki beans are thought to contribute to jing. Many argue that beans cause digestive problems so this may be up for debate. The best way to consume them is likely in fermented forms like miso, natto and tempeh.


Black Rice – At one point in time only the Chinese emperor could consume black rice. It was punishable by death for the common people to consume it. This forbidden black rice is now widely available for royalty and common folk alike. While more expensive then its white or brown counterparts, it has significantly more nutrition. Its antioxidant count is said to rival blueberries.


Organs – Jing is stored more in the organs than the muscle. Organs of all types have much higher amounts of minerals and vitamins. For more jing go to the jing organs themselves including the kidneys and brain (recall the jing is tied into the nervous system).


Bones – Jing also governs the marrow. Bone marrow was regarded as highly prized in ancient China because it is mysterious and the most hidden and tucked away in the human body. Various qi gong practices are devoted specifically to the marrow. So eating it will help you build it as well. A good quality bone broth may be one of the best jing foods out there. Some even call it the original stem cell therapy.


Also read:

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Picatrix: An ancient manuscript that teaches how to obtain energy from the cosmos

“Through this ancient manuscript…the reader could attract and channel the energy of the cosmos so that a certain event develops according to the will of the practitioner, zodiacal magic; which is said to help master and dominate with accuracy—through the force of the universe—nature and its surroundings.”


The Picatrix is an ancient Arabian book of astrology and occult magic dating back to the 10th or 11th century, which has gained notoriety for the obscene natural of its magical recipes. The Picatrix, with its cryptic astrological descriptions and spells covering almost every conceivable wish or desire, has been translated and used by many cultures over the centuries, and continues to fascinate occult followers from around the world.  

The Picatrix was originally written in Arabic, titled Ghāyat al-Ḥakīm, which translates to “The Aim of the Sage" or "The Goal of the Wise.” Eventually, the Arabic writings were translated into Spanish, and eventually into Latin in 1256 for the Castilian king Alfonso the Wise. At this time it took on the Latin title Picatrix. 

It is composed of both magic and astrology. One highly influential interpretation refers to it as a "handbook of talismanic magic." Researcher David Pingree calls it “the most thorough exposition of celestial magic in Arabic” and describes the Picatrix as “Arabic texts on Hermeticism, Sabianism, Ismailism, astrology, alchemy and magic produced in the Near East in the ninth and tenth centuries A.D.” 

The Picatrix is divided into four books:

  • Book I – “Of the heavens and the effects they cause through images made under them”
  • Book II – “Of the figures of the heavens in general, and of the general motion of the sphere, and of their effects in this world”
  • Book III – “Of the properties of the planets and signs, and of their figures and forms made in their colors, and how one may speak with the spirits of the planets, and of many other magical workings”
  • Book IV – “Of the properties of spirits, and of those things that are necessary to observe in this most excellent art, and how they may be summoned with images, suffumigations and other things”

Each books contains several chapters. A small sampling of the contents of these chapters is: magic and its properties; the works of the planets, sun, and moon; the order of natural things; stones appropriate for each planet; figures, colors, garments, and incenses of the planets; confections of the spirits of the planets, and of averting harmful workings, and magic of miraculous effect, and the foods, incense, unguents, and perfumes that ought to be used to work by the spirits of the seven planets; how the vigor of the spirit of the Moon is drawn into things here below; and how incenses of the stars ought to be made, and certain compounds needed in this science. 

A page from the Ghāyat al-Ḥakīm (Picatrix)

The Picatrix is believed to have been written by Abū- Maslama Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd al-da’im al-Majrīt, an astronomer, mathematician, and alchemist of Al-Andalus who wanted to gather all the knowledge of the Middle East from the 8th and 9th centuries.

Arab historian, Ibn Khaldun, ascribed authorship of Picatrix (referring to the original Arabic version, under the title Ġāyat al-Ḥakīm) to the mathematician, al-Majriti, who died between 1005CE and 1008CE.

Although there are those who disagree with such authorship and attribute this magical grimoire to an unknown apprentice of a mysterious Middle Eastern magic school—mostly due to the style in which the work is presented which looks like a kind of notebook—the enigmatic grimoire was extremely popular and promised to teach its reader, among other things, how to obtain energy from the planets of the cosmos. Many authors summarize the work as being “the most thorough exposition of celestial magic in Arabic”.

The contents of this ancient magical grimoire are fascinating and in it, we find reference to talismanic magic and astrological references to animals, plants, metals, stones, etc.

Through them, the reader could attract and channel the energy of the planets so that a certain event develops according to the will of the practitioner, zodiacal magic which is said to help master and dominate with accuracy—through the force of the universe— even nature and the surroundings.

The ancient magical grimoire also gives insight into numerology and lunar calendars that supposedly would help plan rituals considering the most propitious moment so that the energy of the universe favored the result.


However, there’s more to this mysterious magical grimoire than numerology and astrology. This ancient text includes different bizarre recipes for countless spells that had to be composed using ingredients as dangerous as hashish, opium and other psychoactive plants that were used in large quantities to induce altered states of consciousness and astral journeys.

If on the other hand, the intention was to contact the spirits and master the forces of the spirits, then the ingredients that had to be used were different: blood, sperm, urine, earwax, tears and saliva were all mixed together specifically to obtain the best results and master the world we cannot see on a daily basis.

Interestingly, Picatrix explains not only how to create and ensoul magical statues and talismans, but even speaks of whole cities constructed using the principles of astrological magic.

You can find a copy of the Picatrix on the left bar of out site.


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Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Are we all PSYCHIC? Scientists believe that animals - including humans - have a collective consciousness


Some may call it coincidence, while others call it a sixth sense but why do people think about someone right before they call, for example, or ‘have a feeling’ something is about to happen before it does?

It may be due to something called collective consciousness - a term used by certain scientists to describe the practice of humans, and animals, sharing behaviours and ideas with each other telepathically.

A report in 2010 claimed to have proved the presence of this consciousness and, by default, psychic abilities in humans.

But these claims divided opinion and more recent reports dismiss them as nonsense. 

The idea of a collective consciousness was first presented by French sociologist Émile Durkheim in 1893.

Durkheim’s definition related more to a shared understanding of certain morals and social norms based on people either imitating others, explicitly passing on these behaviours to one another, or agreeing certain ideals in order to feel accepted.

Yet in the 1970s, scientists began to suggest this collective consciousness could be developed and spread through species non-explicitly; through telepathic or ‘supernatural’ means.

The Hundredth Monkey Phenomenon, for example, was an idea put forward by South African zoologist and ethologist Lyall Watson and his scientific author colleague Lawrence Blair in 1975.

Watson and Blair used the behaviours of Japanese macaque monkeys to back up their claims.

During the 1950s, macaques on the island of Koshima learned to wash sweet potatoes and explicitly passed this skill onto younger members of the group. 

According to Watson and Blair, this behaviour then spread and was observed on neighbouring islands among groups of macaques who had never seemingly come into contact with each other.

They chalked this up to the monkeys sharing a collective consciousness, often referred to as a ‘shared mind’ or ‘hive mind’, in which the practices were shared telepathically.

A similar practice was more recently observed among blue tits. This time the skill the birds taught themselves was to break into milk bottles and drink the cream from the top.


Although the practice was first observed in Southampton in 2011, similar groups of the same species exhibited the same skills in other countries throughout Europe and Asia. This was despite the groups never meeting and the birds being non-migratory.

A science journal in 2010 published claims made by Professor Daryl Bem, a physicist from Cornell University, that he had proved humans have similar psychic abilities supposedly seen in the birds and monkeys.

Professor Bem set out to investigate 'psi', or parapsychology, through a series of nine experiments.

In one test, students were shown a list of words to memorise. They were later asked to recall as many as they could and finally were given a random selection of the words to type out.

They were, unsurprisingly, more adept at remembering certain words over others, but these words tended to be the words they would later be asked to type, suggesting a future event had affected their ability to remember.

In another experiment, the students were shown an image of two curtains on a computer screen and told one concealed an erotic picture. The students chose the curtain hiding the  picture ‘more often than could be explained away by chance’, according to Professor Bem.

Importantly, the position of the picture was randomly assigned by a computer that didn't make its decision until after the volunteer chose one curtain or the other.

To believers in the paranormal, this suggested the students were actually influencing future events and the odds against the combined result being down to mere chance or being a statistical fluke were quoted as 74 billion to one.

Professor Bem carried out nine different experiments involving more than 1,000 volunteers and all but one came down on the side of these so-called psychic theories.

Elsewhere, scientist Rubert Sheldrake has created experiments that test this collective consciousness and telepathy theory online and over the phone.  

He believes it can’t be coincidence that hundreds, if not thousands of people, around the world experience similar feelings of being watched, for example.

Yet many are sceptical. In regards the Japanese monkeys, author Ron Amundson dismissed the supernatural claims, instead suggesting it was impossible to know for certain the monkeys in different groups had never met. 

He added human intervention may have played a part in the skill developing because the monkeys had not seen, or learnt to wash the potatoes, before they were given them by the scientists.

It is also thought that monkeys don’t share a collective consciousness but instead all have thought processes and brains that solve problems in the same way.

This is a small distinction but suggests that when faced with the same issue, the monkeys would take the most appropriate route possible.

This was also used to explain the blue tit mystery; the birds wanted milk, they looked at the bottles and solved the problem they were facing.

Then in 2012, researchers from Edinburgh University including Professor Stuart Ritchie, wanted to put Professor Bem’s claims about the human psyche to the test and challenge his findings.

They repeated Professor Bem’s experiments, using the same computer program, but were unable to repeat his results.  

‘We found nothing,’ said Ritchie.  ‘It might just be because the statistics were a fluke. You're going to get some false positives sometimes.’

Yet Professor Ritchie was unable to explain exactly why his results were so widely different. Professor Bem claimed at the time that Ritchie’s scepticism may have skewed the results, but Ritchie later denied this.

[dailymail]


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Friday, April 14, 2017

Chöd: The Dreadful Mystic Banquet


Chöd is a spiritual practice found primarily in the Nyingma and Kagyu schools of Tibetan Buddhism (where it is classed as Anuttarayoga Tantra). Also known as "Cutting Through the Ego," the practices are based on the Prajñāpāramitā or "Perfection of Wisdom" sutras, which expound the "emptiness" concept of Buddhist philosophy.

According to Mahayana Buddhists, emptiness is the ultimate wisdom of understanding that all things lack inherent existence. The chod practitioner seeks to tap the power of fear through activities such as rituals set in graveyards, and visualisation of offering their bodies in a tantric feast in order to put their understanding of emptiness to the ultimate test.

The first Western reports of Chöd came from a French adventurer who lived in Tibet, Alexandra David-Néel in her travelogue Magic and Mystery in Tibet, published in 1932:

Chöd is a kind of "Mystery" played by one actor only... and it has been so cleverly devised  to terrify the novices that one hears of men who have suddenly gone mad or died while engaged in its performance.

A cemetery, or any wild site whose physical  aspects awakens feelings of terror , is considered to be an appropriate spot. However, the place is thought even more suitable if it is associated with a terrible legend or if a tragic event has actually happened there quite recently.

The reason of this preference is that the effect of chöd , or kindred rites, does not depend solely on the feelings aroused in the mind of the celebrant  by the stern words of the liturgy, nor upon the awe-inspiring surroundings. It is also designed to stir up the occult forces, or the conscious beings which - according to Tibetans - may exist in such places, having been generated either by actual deeds or by the concentration  of many people's  thoughts  on imaginary events. 

It follows that , during  the performance of chöd , which I have  compared to a drama  enacted by a single actor, the latter may happen to see himself suddenly surrounded by players of the occult worlds who begin to play unexpected roles.  Whatever part autosuggestion and visualization may have in the production  of these phenomena, they are deemed excellent for the good result of the training; but the test proves too hard for the nerves of some apprentice naijorpas and it is then that the accidents that I have mentioned occur: of madness and death.

Like any other actor, the man who wants to perform chöd must first learn his role by heart. Then he must practice the ritual dance, his steps forming geometrical figures, and also turning on one foot, stamping and leaping while keeping time with the liturgic recitation. Finally, he must learn to handle, according to rule, the bell, the dorjee, and the magic dagger (phurba), to beat rhythmically a kind of small drum (dammer) and to blow a trumpet made of a human femur (angling).

A "Naljörpa" performing the rite of chöd in a forest said to be haunted by evil spirits

The task is not easy; I lost my breath more than once during my apprenticeship.

Lack of place prevents me from giving a translation of the text of chöd, in extenso... However, the essential part of the rite consists in a banquet which may be briefly described as follows.

The celebrant blows his bone trumpet, calling the hungry demons to the feast he intends to lay before them. He imagines that a feminine deity, which esoterically personifies his own will, springs from the top of his head and stands before him, sword in hand. 

With one stroke she cuts off the head of the naljorpa. Then, while troops of ghouls crowd round for the feast, the goddess severs his limbs, skins him and rips open his belly. The bowels fall out, the blood flows like a river, and the hideous guests bite here and there, masticate noisily, while the celebrant excites and urges them with the liturgic words of unreserved surrender: 

"For ages, in the course of renewed births I have borrowed  from countless living beings - at the cost of their welfare and life - food, clothing, all kinds of services to sustain my body , to keep it joyful in comfort and to defend it against death. Today, I pay my debt, offering for destruction this body which I have held so dear.

"I give my flesh  to the hungry, my blood to the thirsty, my skin to clothe those who are naked, my bones as fuel to those who suffer from cold. I give my happiness to the unhappy ones. I give my breath to bring back the dying life.

"Shame on me if I shrink from giving my self! Shame of you , wretched and demoniac beings, if you do not dare to pray upon it..."

This act of the mystery is called the "read meal." It is followed by the "black meal", whose mystic signification is disclosed only to those disciples who have received an initiation of high degree.

The vision of the demoniacal banquet vanishes, the laughter and cries of the ghouls die away. Utter loneliness in a gloomy landscape succeeds the weird orgy, and the exaltation aroused in the naljorpa by his dramatic sacrifice gradually subsides.

Now he must imagine that he has become a small heap of charred human bones that emerges from a lake of black mud - the mud of mystery, of moral defilement, and of harmful deeds to which he has cooperated during the course of numberless lives, whose origin is lost in the night of time. He must realize that the very idea of sacrifice is but an illusion, an offshoot of blind, groundless pride. In fact, he has nothing to give away, because he is nothing. These useless bones, symbolizing the destruction of his phantom "I", may sink into the muddy lake , it will not matter.

That silent renunciation of the ascetic who realizes that he holds nothing that he can renounce, and who utterly relinquishes the elation springing from the idea of sacrifice, closes the rite. 

Some Lamas undertake tours to perform chöd near a hundred and eight lakes, and a hundred and eight cemeteries. They devote years to this exercise, wandering not only in Tibet, but also in India, Nepal and China. Others only retire to solitary places for the daily celebration of chöd for longer or shorter time. 

Find the book Magic and Mystery in Tibet by Alexandra David-Neel on the right bar of our site.


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Saturday, April 8, 2017

Left-hand path and right-hand path


In Western esotericism the terms Left-Hand Path and Right-Hand Path refer to a dichotomy between two opposing approaches to magic. This terminology is used in various groups involved in the occult and ceremonial magic. 

In some definitions, the Left-Hand Path is equated with malicious black magic and the Right-Hand Path with benevolent white magic. Other occultists have criticized this definition, believing that the Left–Right dichotomy refers merely to different kinds of working and does not necessarily connote good or bad magical actions.

In more recent definitions, which base themselves on the terms' origins in Indian Tantra, the Right-Hand Path, or RHP, is seen as a definition for those magical groups that follow specific ethical codes and adopt social convention, while the Left-Hand Path adopts the opposite attitude, espousing the breaking of taboo and the abandoning of set morality. 

Some contemporary occultists have stressed that both paths can be followed by a magical practitioner, as essentially they have the same goals.

Right-Hand Path

The Right-Hand Path is commonly thought to refer to magical or religious groups which adhere to a certain set of characteristics:

  • They divide the concepts of mind, body and spirit into three separate, albeit interrelated, entities.
  • They adhere to a specific moral code and a belief in some form of judgement, such as karma or the Threefold Law.
The occultists Dion Fortune and William G. Gray consider non-magical Abrahamic religions to be RHP.


Left-Hand Path

The historian Dave Evans studied self-professed followers of the Left-Hand Path in the early 21st century, making several observations about their practices:

  • They often reject societal convention and the status quo, which some suggest is in a search for spiritual freedom. As a part of this, LHP followers embrace magical techniques that would traditionally be viewed as taboo, for instance using sex magic or embracing Satanic imagery. As Mogg Morgan wrote, the "breaking of taboos makes magic more potent and can lead to reintegration and liberation, [for example] the eating of meat in a vegetarian community can have the same liberating effect as anal intercourse in a sexually inhibited straight society."
  • They often question religious or moral dogma, instead adhering to forms of personal anarchism.
  • They often embrace sexuality and incorporate it into magical ritual.

Criticism

Criticism of both terms has come from various occultists. The Magister of the Cultus Sabbati, Andrew D. Chumbley, stated that they were simply "theoretical constructs" that were "without definitive objectivity", and that nonetheless, both forms could be employed by the magician. He used the analogy of a person having two hands, a right and a left, both of which served the same master. Similar sentiments were expressed by the Wiccan High Priest John Belham-Payne, who stated that "For me, magic is magic."

Vamachara

Vāmācāra is a Sanskrit term meaning "left-handed attainment" and is synonymous with Left-Hand Path or Left-path. It is used to describe a particular mode of worship or spiritual practice (Sanskrit: sadhana) that is not only heterodox (Sanskrit: Nāstika) to standard Vedic injunction, but extreme in comparison to prevailing cultural norms. These practices are often generally considered to be Tantric in orientation. The converse term to Vamacara is Dakshinachara (glossed "Right-Hand Path") which is used to refer not only to orthodox (Āstika) sects but to modes of spirituality that engage in spiritual practices that not only accord with Vedic injunction but are generally agreeable to prevailing cultural norms. That said, left-handed and right-handed modes of practice may be evident in both orthodox and heterodox schools of Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism and are a matter of taste, culture, proclivity, initiation, sadhana and dharmic lineage (parampara).

Tantra and Madame Blavatsky

The occidental use of the terms Left-Hand Path and Right Hand-Path originated with Madame Blavatsky, a 19th-century occultist who founded the Theosophical Society. She had travelled across parts of southern Asia and claimed to have met with many mystics and magical practitioners in India and Tibet. She developed the term Left-Hand Path as a translation of the term Vamachara, an Indian Tantric practice that emphasised the breaking of Hindu societal taboos by having sexual intercourse in ritual, drinking alcohol, eating meat and assembling in graveyards, as a part of the spiritual practice. The term Vamachara literally meant "the left-hand way" in Sanskrit, and it was from this that Blavatsky first coined the term.

Returning to Europe, Blavatsky began using the term. It was relatively easy for her to associate left with evil in many European countries, where it already had an association with many negative things; as the historian Dave Evans noted, homosexuals were referred to as "left-handed" while in Protestant nations, Roman Catholics were called "left-footers". This association with negative aspects of society can be traced back to the Bible, in which it states:

And he shall separate them one from another,

as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats.
And he shall set the sheep on his right,
but the goats on his left.
— Matthew 25: 32-33

Adoption into the western esoteric tradition

In New York, Madame Blavatsky founded the Theosophical Society with several other people in 1875. She set about writing several books, including Isis Unveiled (1877) in which she introduced the terms Left-Hand Path and Right-Hand Path, firmly stating that she herself followed the RHP, and that followers of the LHP were practitioners of Black Magic who were a threat to society. The occult community soon picked up on her newly introduced duality, which, according to historian Dave Evans, "had not been known before" in the Western Esoteric Tradition. For instance, Dion Fortune, the founder of an esoteric magical group (the Society of the Inner Light) also took the side of the RHP, making the claim that "black magicians", or followers of the LHP, were homosexuals and that Indian servants might use malicious magical rites devoted to the goddess Kali against their European masters.

Aleister Crowley further altered and popularized the term in certain occult circles, referring to a "Brother of the Left-Hand Path", or a "Black Brother", as one who failed to attain the grade of Magister Templi in Crowley's system of ceremonial magic. Crowley also referred to the Left-Hand Path when describing the point at which the Adeptus Exemptus (such as his old Christian mentor, Macgregor Mathers) chooses to cross the Abyss, which is the location of Choronzon and the illusory eleventh Sephira, which is Da'ath or Knowledge. In this example, the adept must surrender all, including the guidance of his Holy Guardian Angel, and leap into the Abyss. If his accumulated Karma is sufficient, and if he has been utterly thorough in his own self-destruction, he becomes a "babe of the abyss", arising as a Star in the Crowleyan system. On the other hand, if he retains some fragment of ego, or if he fears to cross, he then becomes encysted. The layers of his self, which he could have shed in the Abyss, ossify around him. He is then titled a "Brother of the Left-Hand Path", who will eventually be broken up and disintegrated against his will, since he failed to choose voluntary disintegration. Crowley associated all this with "Mary, a blasphemy against BABALON", and with the celibacy of Christian clergy.

Another of those figures that Fortune considered to be a follower of the LHP was Arthur Edward Waite, who did not recognise these terms, and acknowledged that they were newly introduced and that in any case he believed the terms LHP and RHP to be distinct from black and white magic. However, despite Waite's attempts to distinguish the two, the equation of the LHP with Black Magic was propagated more widely in the fiction of Dennis Wheatley; Wheatley also conflated the two with Satanism and also the political ideology of communism, which he viewed as a threat to traditional British society. In one of his novels, Strange Conflict (1941), he stated that:

The Order of the Left-Hand Path... has its adepts... the Way of Darkness is perpetuated in the horrible Voodoo cult which had its origins in Madagascar and has held Africa, the Dark Continent, in its grip for centuries.

Later 20th and 21st centuries

In the latter half of the 20th century various groups arose that self-professedly described themselves as LHP, but did not consider themselves as following Black Magic. In 1975, Kenneth Grant, a student of Aleister Crowley, explained in Cults of the Shadow that he and his group, the Typhonian Order, practiced the LHP. Grant's usage takes meaning from its roots in eastern Tantra; Grant states that it is about challenging taboos, but that it should be used in conjunction with the RHP to achieve balance.

When Anton Szandor LaVey was developing his form of LaVeyan Satanism during the 1960s, he emphasised the rejection of traditional Christian morality and as such labelled his new philosophy to be a form of the Left-Hand Path. In his The Satanic Bible, he wrote that "Satanism is not a white light religion; it is a religion of the flesh, the mundane, the carnal—all of which are ruled by Satan, the personification of the Left Hand Path."

In Russia there is a tradition of Left Hand Path practices within the Rodnover community under the influence of Volhv Veleslav, and within the Odinist community with Askr Svarte, and in England with Nikarev Leshy. Veleslav has also written numerous books on Tantra and the Left Hand Path.

Stephen E. Flowers, Ph.D. of the Temple of Set states in his book Lords of the Left Hand Path: A History of Spiritual Dissent there are two criteria to be considered a true Lord of the Left Hand Path and they are Self-Deification and Antinomianism.

Usage in Tantra

Tantra is a set of esoteric Indian traditions with roots in Hinduism and Buddhism. Tantra is often divided by its practitioners into two different paths: dakshinachara and vamachara, translated as Right-Hand Path and Left-Hand Path respectively. Dakshinachara consists of traditional Hindu practices such as asceticism and meditation, while vamachara also includes ritual practices that conflict with mainstream Hinduism, such as sexual rituals, consumption of alcohol and other intoxicants, animal sacrifice, and flesh-eating. The two paths are viewed by Tantrists as equally valid approaches to enlightenment. Vamachara, however, is often considered to be the faster and more dangerous of the two paths, and is not suitable for all practitioners. The usage of the terms Left-Hand Path and Right-Hand Path is still current in modern Indian and Buddhist Tantra.

Left-Hand Path relation to Tantra in Hinduism

The difference between the right hand path and the left hand path is eloquently explained by Julius Evola in the book The Yoga of Power:

"There is a significant difference between the two Tantric paths, that of the right hand and that of the left hand (which both are under Shiva's aegis). In the former, the adept always experiences 'someone above him', even at the highest level of realization. In the latter, 'he becomes the ultimate Sovereign' (chakravartin = worldruler)."

Left-Hand Path relation to Tantra in Buddhism

Robert Beér's Encyclopedia of Tibetan Symbols and Motifs clarifies widespread taboos and deprecation that associate the left hand as dark, female, inferior and 'not right':

Padmasambhava in Yab-Yum
"In Buddhist tantra, the right hand symbolises the male aspect of compassion or skilful means, and the left hand represents the female aspect of wisdom or emptiness. Ritual hand-held attributes, such as the vajra and bell, vajra and lotus, damaru and bell, damaru and khatvanga, arrow and bow, curved knife and skull-cup, sword and shield, hook and rope snare, etc., placed in the right and left hands respectively, symbolise the union of the active male aspect of skilful means with the contemplative female aspect of wisdom.

In both Hinduism and Buddhism the goddess is always placed on the left side of the male deity, where she 'sits on his left thigh, while her lord places his left arm over her left shoulder and dallies with her left breast'.

In representations of the Buddha image, the right hand often makes an active mudra of skilful means—the earth-touching, protection, fearlessness, wish-granting or teaching mudra; while the left hand often remains in the passive mudra of meditative equipoise, resting in the lap and symbolising meditation on emptiness or wisdom."

Beér's preceding explanations correspond to Yab-Yum (father-mother) symbolism and contemplation on or practice of sexual rituals associated with Vajrayogini and Anuttarayoga Tantra. Yab-yum is generally understood to represent the primordial (or mystical) union of wisdom and compassion. The metaphorical union of bliss and emptiness is commonly represented within Thangka paintings of the Cakrasaṃvara Tantra depicting the sexual union of the deity Saṃvara and his consort Dorje Pakmo.


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